**Page description appears here**

“Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics”

Authors: Morten Breivik and Gunnar Sand,
Affiliation: NTNU, Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures and University Centre in Svalbard
Reference: 2009, Vol 30, No 3, pp. 101-125.

     Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict


Keywords: Jens Glad Balchen, Servo Engineering, Automatic Control, Engineering Cybernetics, IFAC, NFA, DIANA, Ship Automation, DP, Cyberfish, Lobster Farming, Golden Feedback Loop

Abstract: This paper tells the story of Jens Glad Balchen (1926-2009), a Norwegian research scientist and engineer who is widely regarded as the father of Engineering Cybernetics in Norway. In 1954, he founded what would later become the Department of Automatic Control at the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim. This name was changed to the Department of Engineering Cybernetics in 1972 to reflect the broader efforts being made, not only within the purely technical disciplines, but also within biology, oceanography and medicine. Balchen established an advanced research community in cybernetics in postwar Norway, whose applications span everything from the process industry and positioning of ships to control of fish and lobster farming. He was a chief among the tribe of Norwegian cybernetics engineers and made a strong impact on his colleagues worldwide. He planted the seeds of a whole generation of Norwegian industrial companies through his efforts of seeking applications for every scientific breakthrough. His strength and his wisdom in combination with his remarkable stubbornness gave extraordinary results.

PDF PDF (4828 Kb)        DOI: 10.4173/mic.2009.3.2



DOI forward links to this article:
  [1] (2011), doi:10.1002/9781119994138.refs
  [2] Morten Breivik, Stig Kvaal and Per Østby (2015), doi:10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.01.001


References:
[1] Aadland, C. (2009). Ingeniørbragden, Teknisk Ukeblad, URL http://www.tu.no/industri/article230776.ece.
[2] Asphjell, A. (2004). Jens G Balchen: Reguleringsteknikkens grand old man, Universitetsavisa, URL http://www.universitetsavisa.no/ua_lesmer.php?kategori=nyheterand&dokid=4148c581e1e8b2.47453348.
[3] Asphjell, A. Børresen, A. K. (2004). Institutt for teknisk kybernetikk 50 år, ITK, NTNU, Trondheim.
[4] Balchen, J. G. (1955). Analog computers in control engineering (in Norwegian), Teknisk Ukeblad, 102(23):498-502.
[5] Balchen, J. G. (1961). Stability of Nonlinear Feedback Systems Using the Liapunov 2, Method. Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim.
[6] Balchen, J. G. (1967). New possibilities in industrial automation (in Norwegian), Teknisk Ukeblad, 114(39):704-708.
[7] Balchen, J. G. (1969). Systems engineering in engineering education, In Proceedings of the EUSEC/FEANI Education Conference, Oslo, Norway.
[8] Balchen, J. G. (1972). Feedback control of schooling fish, In Proceedings of the 5th IFAC World Congress, Paris, France.
[9] Balchen, J. G. (1975). Mathematical modelling of fish behaviour: Principles and applications, In Proceedings of the 6th IFAC World Congress, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
[10] Balchen, J. G. (1977). Political aspects of modelling, identification and control of economic systems: A survey of rationales and goals, In Proceedings of the Workshop on Mathematical Modelling, Identification and Control of Sectoral and National Economies, Trondheim, Norway.
[11] Balchen, J. G. (1979). The need for computer-aided design in modelling and control of non-technical systems, In Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Computer-Aided Design of Control Systems, Zurich, Switzerland.
[12] Balchen, J. G. (1980). Dynamic optimization in the process industry, In Proceedings of the 5th International Congress in Scandinavia on Chemical Engineering, Copenhagen, Denmark.
[13] Balchen, J. G. (1980). The state of the art in offshore fish farming, In Proceedings of the Conference on Engineering for Offshore Fish Farming, Glasgow, Scotland.
[14] Balchen, J. G. (1955). Model based teleoperation of untethered underwater vehicles with manipulators, MOBATEL, In Proceedings of the 3rd IFAC Workshop on Control Applications in Marine Systems, Trondheim, Norway.
[15] Balchen, J. G. (1997). Teknisk kybernetikk - et fagområde i sterk vekst, In M. Hård, A. Kjærvik, S. Kvaal, P. K. Larsen, O. Lauritzen, and E. Rødahl, editors, Teknologi for samfunnet: NTH i en brytningstid 1985-1995, pages 140-151. NTNU, Trondheim, URL http://www.ntnu.no/info/nthbok/140-151balchen.html.
[16] Balchen, J. G. (2000). Thirty years of research on the application of cybernetic methods in fisheries and aquaculture technology, Modeling, Identification and Control, 2.1:3-64 doi:10.4173/mic.2000.1.1
[17] Balchen, J. G. (2002). Automation in fisheries and aquaculture technology, In H. Unbehauen, editor, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems.EOLSS, chapter Control Systems, Robotics and Automation, page 6.43.35.5. Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK, URL http://www.eolss.net.
[18] Balchen, J. G. Aune, A. (1965). Semidynamic optimal control, In Proceedings of the 2nd IFAC Symposium on the Theory of Self-Adaptive Control Systems, Teddington, UK.
[19] Balchen, J. G. Baggerud, A. (1970). An adaptive state estimator, In Proceedings of the 2nd IFAC Symposium on State and Parameter Estimation, Prague, Czechoslovakia.
[20] Balchen, J. G., Endresen, T., Fjeld, M., Olsen, T. O. (1973). Multivariable PID estimation and control in systems with biased disturbances, Automatica, 9(3):295-307 doi:10.1016/0005-1098(73)90054-X
[21] Balchen, J. G., Håndlykken, M., Tyssø, A. (1981). The need for better laboratory experiments in control engineering education, In Proceedings of the 8th IFAC World Congress, Kyoto, Japan.
[22] Balchen, J. G., Jenssen, N. A., Mathisen, E., Sælid, S. (1980). A dynamic positioning system based on Kalman filtering and optimal control, Modeling, Identification and Control, .3:135-163 doi:10.4173/mic.1980.3.1
[23] Balchen, J. G., Jenssen, N. A., Sælid, S. (1976). Dynamic positioning using Kalman filtering and optimal control theory, In Proceedings of the IFAC/IFIP Symposium on Automation in Offshore Oilfield Operations, Bergen, Norway.
[24] Balchen, J. G., Ljungquist, D., Strand, S. (1988). State space model predictive control of a multi-stage electro-metallurgical process, In Proceedings of the IFAC Workshop on Model Based Process Control, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
[25] Balchen, J. G. Sandrib, B. (1994). Input saturation in nonlinear multivariable processes resolved by nonlinear decoupling, In Proceedings of the 3rd IEEE Conference on Control Applications, Glasgow, Scotland.
[26] Bjerva, K. G., (2006). Norcontrol: Maritim innovasjonsiden 1965, Norcontrol/Kongsberg Maritime Pensjonistforening, Horten.
[27] Bjørnstad, S. (2009). Shipshaped: Kongsberg Industry and Innovations in Deepwater Technology, 1975-2007, Ph.D. thesis, BI Norwegian School of Management, Oslo, Norway.
[28] Bray, D. (2003). Dynamic Positioning, Oilfield Publications Inc.
[29] Brown, G. S. Campbell, D. P. (1948). Principles of Servomechanisms, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
[30] Buland, T. (1995). Det norske forskningsregimet 1945-1990, STSWorking Paper 3/95, Centre for Technology and Society, University of Trondheim.
[31] Conway, F. Siegelman, J. (2005). Dark Hero of the Information Age: In Search of Norbert Wiener - The Father of Cybernetics, Basic Books, New York.
[32] Dragland, Å. (1998). ´Baby-boom´ på Tjeldbergodden, Gemini, 1.3. URL http://www.ntnu.no/gemini/1998-03/27.html.
[33] Fay, H. (1990). Dynamic Positioning Systems: Principles, Design and Applications, Editions Technip, Paris.
[34] Fossen, T. I. Balchen, J. G. (1991). The NEROV autonomous underwater vehicle, In Proceedings of the IEEE OCEANS´91, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
[35] Grimsen, S., Jaques, R. N., Erenst, V., Balchen, J. G. (1986). Aspects of automation in a lobster farming plant, In Proceedings of the IFAC Symposium on Automation and Data Processing in Aquaculture, Trondheim, Norway.
[36] Gulowsen, J. (2000). Bro mellom vitenskap og teknologi: SINTEF 1950-2000, Tapir Akademisk Forlag, Trondheim.
[37] Høivold, I. (1984). Norwegian research and development in the field of ship automation, Modeling, Identification and Control, .3:171-178 doi:10.4173/mic.1984.3.4
[38] Høivold, I. (2003). Uten nisselue: Historien om Norcontrol, Unpublished personal memoirs.
[39] Kittilsen, F. (1994). Institutt for teknisk kybernetikk: Stamfar til norske bedrifter i verdensklasse, Bladet Forskning, .7. URL http://forskningsradet.ravn.no/bibliotek/forskning/199407/1994070801.html.
[40] Kittilsen, F. (1994). Simrad Albatross: En stødig lausunge fra Kongsberg, Bladet Forskning, .7. URL http://forskningsradet.ravn.no/bibliotek/forskning/199407/1994070701.html.
[41] Kvaal, S. (1991). Drømmen om det moderne Norge, Automasjon som visjon og virkelighet i etterkrigstiden. STS Report 13, Centre for Technology and Society, University of Trondheim.
[42] Kvaal, S. (1992). NTNFs servotekniske utvalg: Utvalget for de moderne ting, STS Working Paper 4/92, Centre for Technology and Society, University of Trondheim.
[43] Kvaal, S. (2009). Hooked on a new technology: The automation pioneers in post-war Norway, Modeling, Identification and Control, 3.3:87-100 doi:10.4173/mic.2009.3.1
[44] Lunde, E., Egeland, O., Balchen, J. G. (1987). Dynamic control of kinematically redundant robotics manipulators, Modeling, Identification and Control, .3:159-174 doi:10.4173/mic.1987.3.4
[45] Nordal, O. (2009). Tool or science?, In J. Impagliazzo, T. Jrvi, and P. Paju, editors, History of Nordic Computing 2, pages 121-129. Springer.
[46] Overbye, S. (1989). Fra forskning til industri: Utviklingen av skipsautomatiseringsbedriften Norcontrol, Master´s thesis, University of Oslo.
[47] Ryvik, H. (1999). Stødig på alle hav, Teknisk Ukeblad, URL http://web.tu.no/nyheter/arkiv/?id=1999/33/s2425/s2425.html.
[48] Ryvik, H. (2008). Norsk Forening for Automatisering: Automatisering for å bygge Norge, NFA, Kristiansand.
[49] Sand, G. Dragland, Å. (2002). Professoren som ble industribygger, In G. Sand and K. Skretting, editors, Fortellinger om forskning, pages 48-61. Tapir Akademisk Forlag, Trondheim.
[50] Sælid, S., Jenssen, N. A., Balchen, J. G. (1983). Design and analysis of a dynamic positioning system based on Kalman filtering and optimal control, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. 2.3:331-339 doi:10.1109/TAC.1983.1103225
[51] Volden, R. Balchen, J. G. (1993). Determining 3-D object coordinates from a sequence of 2-D images in modeling ROV environments, In Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Unmanned Untethered Submersible Technology, Durham, New Hampshire, USA.
[52] Wicken, O. (1994). Elektronikkentreprenørene, AdNotam Gyldendal.
[53] Wiener, N. (1948). Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine, MIT Press, Cambridge.
[54] Yin, S. Balchen, J. G. (1997). Image compression and transmission through a low-rate ultrasonic link in subsea telerobotic applications, Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision. .1:41-53 doi:10.1023/A:1008214007262
[55] Østby, P. (1989). Tilfellet Comtec, STS Report 8, Centre for Technology and Society, University of Trondheim.
[56] Østby, P. (1990). Creating a network: Advanced technology or primitive needs?, .
[57] Østby, P. (1991). En automatisk fabrikk?, STS Working Paper 5/91, Centre for Technology and Society, University of Trondheim.


BibTeX:
@article{MIC-2009-3-2,
  title={{Jens Glad Balchen: A Norwegian Pioneer in Engineering Cybernetics}},
  author={Breivik, Morten and Sand, Gunnar},
  journal={Modeling, Identification and Control},
  volume={30},
  number={3},
  pages={101--125},
  year={2009},
  doi={10.4173/mic.2009.3.2},
  publisher={Norwegian Society of Automatic Control}
};

News

May 2016: MIC reaches 2000 DOI Forward Links. The first 1000 took 34 years, the next 1000 took 2.5 years.


July 2015: MIC's new impact factor is now 0.778. The number of papers published in 2014 was 21 compared to 15 in 2013, which partially explains the small decrease in impact factor.


Aug 2014: For the 3rd year in a row MIC's impact factor increases. It is now 0.826.


Dec 2013: New database-driven web-design enabling extended statistics. Article number 500 is published and MIC reaches 1000 DOI Forward Links.


Jan 2012: Follow MIC on your smartphone by using the RSS feed.

Smartphone


July 2011: MIC passes 1000 ISI Web of Science citations.


Mar 2010: MIC is now indexed by DOAJ and has received the Sparc Seal seal for open access journals.


Dec 2009: A MIC group is created at LinkedIn and Twitter.


Oct 2009: MIC is now fully updated in ISI Web of Knowledge.