**Page description appears here**

“The Impact of Varying Conductivity on the Control of Aluminium Electrolysis Cells”

Authors: Tormod Drengstig, Steinar Kolås and Trond Støre,
Affiliation: University of Stavanger and Norsk Hydro
Reference: 2003, Vol 24, No 4, pp. 205-216.

     Valid XHTML 1.0 Strict

Keywords: Aluminium electrolysis, excess AlF3, control, bath temperature

Abstract: In this paper we investigate from a theoretical point of view the impact of varying bath temperature, excess AlF3 and alumina concentration on cell resistance and cell control. The results are interpreted using knowledge of the behavior of general resistance and anode beam controllers to study the influence on the anode cathode distance. This again leads to the proposal of a new control strategy for bath temperature and excess AlF3. The theoretical results obtained are supported using real data.

PDF PDF (1439 Kb)        DOI: 10.4173/mic.2003.4.2

DOI forward links to this article:
  [1] Haris Salihagi Hrenko and Jo ef Medved (2018), doi:10.1007/s11837-018-2999-5

[1] AABERG, R. J., RANUM, V., WILLIAMSON, K. WELCH, B.J. (1997). The gas under anodes in aluminium smelting cells, Part II: Gas volume and bubble layer characteristics. Light Metals /997, pp. 341-346.
[2] BORG, P., MOEN, T. AALBU, J. (1986). Adaptive control of alumina reduction cells with point feeders, Modelling, Identification and Control, .1, 45-56 doi:10.4173/mic.1986.1.3
[3] CHRENKOVA, M., DANEK, V., SILNY, A. UTIGARD, T. A. (1996). Density, electrical conductivity and viscosity of low melting baths for aluminium electrolysis, Light Metals 1996, pp. 227-232.
[4] DANEK, V., CHRENKOVA, M. SILNY, A. (1995). Density and electrical conductivity of melts of the system Na3AlF6-AlF3-LiF-Al203, The International Harald A. Øye Symposium, pp. 83-94.
[5] DESLAUX, P. (1987). AlF3 additions based on bath temperature measurements, Light Metals 1987, pp. 309-313.
[6] DRENGSTIG, T. (1997). On process model representation and AlF3 dynamics of aluminum electrolysis cells, Dr. ing. thesis, Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.NTNU, Trondheim, Norway.
[7] DRENGSTIG, T., LJUNGQUIST, D. FOSS, B. A. (1998). On the AlF3 and temperature control of an aluminum electrolysis cell, IEEE Trans. on Control Systems Technology, .2, 157-171 doi:10.1109/87.664183
[8] ENTNER, P. M. (1992). Control of AlF concentration, Light Metals 1992, pp. 369-374.
[9] ENTNER, P. NI. (1993). Further development of the AlF3-model, Light Metals 1993, pp. 265-268.
[10] ENTNER, P. M. (1995). Control of bath temperature, Light Metals 1995, pp. 227-230.
[11] ENTNER, P. M. G. A. GUDMUNDSSON (1996). Further development of the temperature model, Light Metals 1996, pp. 445-449.
[12] GRJOTHEIM, K. KVANDE, H., (1993). Introduction to aluminium electrolysis - Understanding the Hall-Héroult Process, Aluminium-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2nd edition.
[13] HALPIN, W. (1998). Interpreting the components of cell voltage, Light Metals 1998, pp. 531-537.
[14] HAUPIN, W. E. (1971). A scanning reference electrode for voltage contours in aluminium smelting cells, Journal of Metals, 2.10, 46-49, October.
[15] HYDE, T. M. WELCH, B.J. (1997). The gas under anodes in aluminium smelting cells, Part I: Measuring and modeling bubble resistance under horizontally oriented electrodes. Light Metals 1997, pp. 333-340.
[16] PEYNEAU, J.M. (1988). The automated control of bath composition on high amperage cell, In Proc. of International Symposium on Reduction and casting of Aluminum, pp. 189-195, Montreal, Canada.
[17] PIONTELLI, R., MAZZA, B. PEDEFERRI, P. (1965). Ricerche sui fenomeni anodici nelle celle per alluminio, Metallurgia Italiana, 5.2, 51-69.
[18] TAYLOR, M.P. (1992). Fluoride material balance, In Fourth Australian Aluminium Smelter Technology Workshop. pp. 720-732, Sydney, Australia.
[19] THONSTAD, J. ROLSETH, S. (1978). On the cathodic overvoltage on aluminium in cryolite-alumina melts, I. Electrochimica Acta, 23, 223-231 doi:10.1016/0013-4686(78)85050-6
[20] WILSON, M.J. (1992). Practical considerations used in the development of a method for calculating aluminium fluoride additions based on cell temperatures, Light Metals 1992, pp. 375-378.

  title={{The Impact of Varying Conductivity on the Control of Aluminium Electrolysis Cells}},
  author={Drengstig, Tormod and Kolås, Steinar and Støre, Trond},
  journal={Modeling, Identification and Control},
  publisher={Norwegian Society of Automatic Control}


May 2016: MIC reaches 2000 DOI Forward Links. The first 1000 took 34 years, the next 1000 took 2.5 years.

July 2015: MIC's new impact factor is now 0.778. The number of papers published in 2014 was 21 compared to 15 in 2013, which partially explains the small decrease in impact factor.

Aug 2014: For the 3rd year in a row MIC's impact factor increases. It is now 0.826.

Dec 2013: New database-driven web-design enabling extended statistics. Article number 500 is published and MIC reaches 1000 DOI Forward Links.

Jan 2012: Follow MIC on your smartphone by using the RSS feed.


July 2011: MIC passes 1000 ISI Web of Science citations.

Mar 2010: MIC is now indexed by DOAJ and has received the Sparc Seal seal for open access journals.

Dec 2009: A MIC group is created at LinkedIn and Twitter.

Oct 2009: MIC is now fully updated in ISI Web of Knowledge.